Conjunctive Words For Essays On Friendship

As a "part of speech" transition words are used to link words, phrases or sentences. They help the reader to progress from one idea (expressed by the author) to the next idea. Thus, they help to build up coherent relationships within the text.

Transitional Words

This structured list of commonly used English transition words — approximately 200, can be considered as quasi complete. It can be used (by students and teachers alike) to find the right expression. English transition words are essential, since they not only connect ideas, but also can introduce a certain shift, contrast or opposition, emphasis or agreement, purpose, result or conclusion, etc. in the line of argument.
The transition words and phrases have been assigned only once to somewhat artificial categories, although some words belong to more than one category.

There is some overlapping with prepositions and postpositions, but for the purpose of usage and completeness of this concise guide, I did not differentiate.

Agreement / Addition / Similarity

The transition words like also, in addition, and, likewise, add information, reinforce ideas, and express agreement with preceding material.

 

in the first place

not only ... but also

as a matter of fact

in like manner

in addition

coupled with

in the same fashion / way

first, second, third

in the light of

not to mention

to say nothing of

equally important

by the same token

again

to

and

also

then

equally

identically

uniquely

like

as

too

moreover

as well as

together with

of course

likewise

comparatively

correspondingly

similarly

furthermore

additionally

 

 

Opposition / Limitation / Contradiction

Transition phrases like but, rather and or, express that there is evidence to the contrary or point out alternatives, and thus introduce a change the line of reasoning (contrast).

 

although this may be true

in contrast

different from

of course ..., but

on the other hand

on the contrary

at the same time

in spite of

even so / though

be that as it may

then again

above all

in reality

after all

but

(and) still

unlike

or

(and) yet

while

albeit

besides

as much as

even though

although

instead

whereas

despite

conversely

otherwise

however

rather

nevertheless

nonetheless

regardless

notwithstanding

 

 

Cause / Condition / Purpose

These transitional phrases present specific conditions or intentions.

 

in the event that

granted (that)

as / so long as

on (the) condition (that)

for the purpose of

with this intention

with this in mind

in the hope that

to the end that

for fear that

in order to

seeing / being that

in view of

If

... then

unless

 

when

whenever

while

 

because of

as

since

while

lest

in case

provided that

given that

only / even if

so that

so as to

owing to

inasmuch as

due to

 

Examples / Support / Emphasis

These transitional devices (like especially) are used to introduce examples as support, to indicate importance or as an illustration so that an idea is cued to the reader.

 

in other words

to put it differently

for one thing

as an illustration

in this case

for this reason

to put it another way

that is to say

with attention to

by all means

 

 

 

important to realize

another key point

first thing to remember

most compelling evidence

must be remembered

point often overlooked

to point out

on the positive side

on the negative side

with this in mind

notably

including

like

to be sure

namely

chiefly

truly

indeed

certainly

surely

markedly

such as

 

especially

explicitly

specifically

expressly

surprisingly

frequently

significantly

particularly

in fact

in general

in particular

in detail

for example

for instance

to demonstrate

to emphasize

to repeat

to clarify

to explain

to enumerate

 

 

Effect / Consequence / Result

Some of these transition words (thus, then, accordingly, consequently, therefore, henceforth) are time words that are used to show that after a particular time there was a consequence or an effect.

Note that for and because are placed before the cause/reason. The other devices are placed before the consequences or effects.

 

as a result

under those circumstances

in that case

for this reason

in effect

for

thus

because the

then

hence

consequently

therefore

thereupon

forthwith

accordingly

henceforth

 

 

Conclusion / Summary / Restatement

These transition words and phrases conclude, summarize and / or restate ideas, or indicate a final general statement. Also some words (like therefore) from the Effect / Consequence category can be used to summarize.

 

as can be seen

generally speaking

in the final analysis

all things considered

as shown above

in the long run

given these points

as has been noted

in a word

for the most part

after all

in fact

in summary

in conclusion

in short

in brief

in essence

to summarize

on balance

altogether

overall

ordinarily

usually

by and large

to sum up

on the whole

in any event

in either case

all in all

 

Obviously

Ultimately

Definitely

 

Time / Chronology / Sequence

These transitional words (like finally) have the function of limiting, restricting, and defining time. They can be used either alone or as part of adverbial expressions.

 

at the present time

from time to time

sooner or later

at the same time

up to the present time

to begin with

in due time

as soon as

as long as

in the meantime

in a moment

without delay

in the first place

all of a sudden

at this instant

first, second

 

immediately

quickly

finally

after

later

last

until

till

since

then

before

hence

since

when

once

about

next

now

 

 

formerly

suddenly

shortly

henceforth

whenever

eventually

meanwhile

further

during

in time

prior to

forthwith

straightaway

 

by the time

whenever

 

until now

now that

 

instantly

presently

occasionally

 

 

Many transition words in the time category (consequently; first, second, third; further; hence; henceforth; since; then, when; and whenever) have other uses.

Except for the numbers (first, second, third) and further they add a meaning of time in expressing conditions, qualifications, or reasons. The numbers are also used to add information or list examples. Further is also used to indicate added space as well as added time.

 

Space / Location / Place

These transition words are often used as part of adverbial expressions and have the function to restrict, limit or qualify space. Quite a few of these are also found in the Time category and can be used to describe spatial order or spatial reference.

 

in the middle

to the left/right

in front of

on this side

in the distance

here and there

in the foreground

in the background

in the center of

 

adjacent to

opposite to 

here

there

next

where

from

over

near

above

below

down

up

under

further

beyond

nearby

wherever

around

between

before

alongside

amid

among

beneath

beside

behind

across

 


 

List of Transition Words

Transition Words are also sometimes called (or put in the category of) Connecting Words. Please feel free to download them via this link to the category page:
Linking Words & Connecting Words as a PDF.

It contains all the transition words listed on this site. The image to the left gives you an impression how it looks like.

 

 

Usage of Transition Words in Essays

Transition words and phrases are vital devices for essays, papers or other literary compositions. They improve the connections and transitions between sentences and paragraphs. They thus give the text a logical organization and structure (see also: a List of Synonyms).

All English transition words and phrases (sometimes also called 'conjunctive adverbs') do the same work as coordinating conjunctions: they connect two words, phrases or clauses together and thus the text is easier to read and the coherence is improved.


Usage: transition words are used with a special rule for punctuation: a semicolon or a period is used after the first 'sentence', and a comma is almost always used to set off the transition word from the second 'sentence'.

Example 1:
People use 43 muscles when they frown; however, they use only 28 muscles when they smile.

 

Example 2:
However, transition words can also be placed at the beginning of a new paragraph or sentence - not only to indicate a step forward in the reasoning, but also to relate the new material to the preceding thoughts.

Use a semicolon to connect sentences, only if the group of words on either side of the semicolon is a complete sentence each (both must have a subject and a verb, and could thus stand alone as a complete thought).

 

 


 

Further helpful readings about expressions, writing and grammar: Compilation of Writing Tips How to write good   ¦   Correct Spelling Study by an English University

 


 

Are you using WORD for writing professional texts and essays? There are many easy Windows Shortcuts available which work (almost) system-wide (e.g. in every programm you use).

The film Finding Forrester tells a story of a high school student who becomes friends with a famous writer named William Forrester.

Forrester published a single book, then withdrew from public life.

Forrester teaches the student about writing. In one scene, he gives this piece of advice:

"You should never start a sentence with a conjunction… It's a firm rule."

In today's program, we are going to explore that “rule.” Should writers not use conjunctions such as but and and at the beginning of a sentence?

What are coordinating conjunctions?

Many writing students are confused about conjunctions. Perhaps their teacher told them they should never write sentences that begin with conjunctions. Yet, they have seen sentences beginning with conjunctions in newspapers and books.

So, should you or shouldn’t you? Before we answer the question, here are some important definitions.

But and and come from a group of words called coordinating conjunctions. These words connect two or more structures.

Consider this example:

I disapproved of his study habits, and I told him so.

This example sentence has two independent clauses. An independent clause is a group of words that could make a complete sentence.

Let's study the sentence closely.

The sentence has a subject, I, and a predicate, disapproved of his study habits. The second part of the sentence, I told him so, also has a subject, I, and a predicate, told him so.

What about but? Here is an example:

She claimed to be the best student in her class, but I suspect she's joking.

Once again, this sentence has two independent clauses joined by a conjunction.

The important point, writes English grammar expert Martha Kolln, is that coordinating conjunctions connect structures as equals. They show that structures or ideas have an equal weight or importance in the sentence.

There is a difference, however. And shows that the structures go together; but shows that the structures contrast.

Conjunctions can be used with a variety of punctuations, notes Max Morenberg, an English grammar expert. They can even connect two or more sentences.

Using conjunctions to connect sentences can show how ideas relate to one another across sentences. The use of conjunctions can also give a certain flow - or abruptness - to a writer's sentences.

Conjunctions and Style

Let's look at famous examples from literature.

Novelist Vladimir Nabokov is famous for the beautiful way he uses language. Most critics say his 1955 book, Lolita, is a classic.

If you read the book, you will notice that Nabokov sometimes starts sentences with conjunctions.

In one of the first lines of Lolita, Nabokov uses but to start a sentence:

"She was Dolly at school. She was Dolores on the dotted line. But in my arms she was always Lolita.”

​In this example, Nabokov creates a pattern in the first two sentences. Then, he breaks the pattern by using a different sentence structure.

The word but helps to show a contrast between ideas, and it also helps to create a mix of sentence styles.

Nabokov's use of but at the beginning of the sentence lends a poetic quality. The word adds interest and drama.

Nabokov also uses "and" to begin a sentence

Nabokov used and at the beginning of a sentence, too.

At the end of Lolita, the lead character Humbert Humbert is writing a goodbye to Lolita that he knows she will never read.

In the last paragraph, and begins several sentences. The usage gives the reader the idea that each sentence holds equal importance. It also gives the reader the feeling that Humbert is writing the thoughts as quickly as they enter his mind.

Consider the last two sentences of Lolita:

"I am thinking of aurochs and angels, the secret of durable pigments, prophetic sonnets, the refuge of art. And this is the only immortality you and I may share, my Lolita.

Should you use conjunctions at the beginning of a sentence?

You might think that you should begin writing sentences that begin with conjunctions. Nabokov did it! So did other famous writers, such as Jane Austen and Mark Twain.

We suggest that you be careful about using conjunctions at the beginning of sentences.

Teachers have good reasons for repeating this rule.

First, students often use conjunctions incorrectly. This can confuse the reader.

Second, many students use conjunctions too often. This creates a repetitive writing style. Remember: you should use many different sentence structures when you are writing.

Think of Nabokov's writing – he used conjunctions to give style to his writing. He did not begin every sentence in the same way!

What can you do?

We started this report with a question: can you begin a sentence with a conjunction?

The answer is yes.

Should you begin a sentence or a paragraph with a conjunction?

That answer depends on your writing ability.

The next time you are reading the news or a book, try to look for examples of but or and at the beginning of a sentence. Ask yourself why the writer formed the sentence that way. Does the choice make stylistic sense?

The process of mastering conjunctions can be difficult and lengthy.

But you will make progress -- with time. And we will be here to help!

I'm John Russell.

And I'm Pete Musto.

John Russell wrote this story for Learning English. Caty Weaver was the editor.

We want to hear from you. Write to us in the Comments Section.

_____________________________________________________________

Words in This Story

conjunction – n.grammar a word that joins together sentences, clauses, phrases, or words

coordinating conjunction– n. a conjunction (such as and, or, or but) that joins together words, phrases, or clauses of equal importance

clause – n. grammar a part of a sentence that has its own subject and verb

controversial– adj. relating to or causing much discussion, disagreement, or argument

contrast– n. something that is different from another thing — + to

aurochs n. large, black European wild ox, extinct since 1627.

pigment – n. a substance that gives color to something else

immortality – n. the quality or state of someone or something that will never die or be forgotten

repetitive– n. happening again and again: repeated many times

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