Anniversary Dictionary Essay Johnsons

How To Use This Site

Menu Options · How to Navigate Page View · Dictionary Entries · FAQ

Menu Options

The menu is located at the top of the page and it includes the following:

Home
The front page, which includes the latest updates and a list of the last 40 entries I've transcribed.

About This Project
I explain why this site exists and list some recommended books on Samuel Johnson and his dictionary.

How To Use & FAQ
This page.

Dictionary Statistics
Here you can see which authors are quoted the most, what percentage of the words are nouns or come from Greek roots, or see if Johnson held to his plan to exclude authors alive in his time.

History of Johnson's Dictionary
Here you can read Johnson's original "Plan", learn about the Lord Chesterfield patronage fiasco, read poetry praising the dictionary and other contemporaneous documents.

Preface
Johnson explains his methodology (it differs somewhat from the "Plan").

The History of the English Language
Johnson traces the history of English from Anglo-Saxon to his day via extensive quotations.

A Grammar of the English Tongue
Johnson examines the structure of English in four sections: Orthography (Spelling), Etymology, Syntax, and Prosody.

You can browse the Dictionary entries that have already been transcribed three different ways: alphabetically, page-by-page, or by quoted author. You can also search through them using the search box. Entries that have NOT been transcribed yet can only be viewed in Page View.

Quiz Game
A short trivia game - how well do you know Johnson's Dictionary?

Random
This will bring up a random dictionary entry.

Contact
If you would like a specific entry transcribed, if you catch a typographical error, or if you have questions or comments, please feel free to contact me.

How to Navigate Page View

You can quickly jump around the dictionary using the navigation drop-down boxes. Under the title “Page View” and above the image and page number are two drop-down boxes – “1. Select a Section” and “2. Select a Page”. If you wanted to find “time,” for instance, you would select “T” from the first box. This causes the “2. Select a Page” box to be filled in with the pages from the “T” section, enabling you to select “Tillyfally – Time.” Press the “3. GO” button and that page is loaded.

Dictionary Entries

Once you have located an entry to view, you will see a screen like this:

The default view is the transcription.

The transcriptions retain Johnson's spelling, with the exception that "ʃ" is replaced with "s", as this is easier for me to type and it will make searching within entries easier. Johnson's "diʃtinct" will thus be rendered "distinct." I am currently going back through previously-transcribed entries to update the Saxon font used in the etymologies to match Johnson's usage.

A great help in deciphering the numerous ligatures commonly found in Renaissance representations of Ancient Greek (and thus in Johnson's etymologies) is Schmidhauser's Renaissance Greek font (specifically, the RGreekL2 chart).

I have also added the following stylistic features to make reading easier: Headwords are printed in red. Definitions (and quotations which serve the purpose of definitions) are printed in black. Illustrative quotations are rendered in blue.

If you wish to see the entry exactly as it appears in the dictionary, click on View Scan. Then you will see an image like this:

For each of these, I compared the British Library and the Harvard Library scans, and chose the most legible version. These scans are taken from old microfilm copies, and the quality is sometimes lacking. Some of them therefore are faded or twisted.

You can click on the page number to view that entry in "Page View" surrounded by its fellow entries.

Below the entry, there are a number of boxes. The first lists the entry's Sources and Attributes. The Sources list includes the authors or books Johnson quotes or references in the entry. You can click on the names/titles to see a list of that source's other entries. Attributes, a work in progress, includes information about the entry included by Johnson, including its part of speech, etymological origin, and whether or not Johnson considers the word to be archaic or obscene. This information will be used for statistical analysis once all of the entries have been transcribed, and will also be used for advanced search in the future. The second box, Search for this word in:, allows you to look up the entry in a variety of contemporary dictionaries. Note: Not every word will be able to be successfully found in every dictionary. Underneath this second box, you will find tools that allow you to leave comments, or to share the entry via Twitter, Google+, Reddit, and Facebook.


Frequently Asked Questions
  1. Why are there differences between Page View and the transcription scans? Aren't they both supposed to be from the 1st edition?
  2. How much did Johnson's dictionary weigh?
  3. What is the Latin poem on the title page?
  4. How do you read Johnson's Anglo-Saxon font?
  5. Which typeface/font is the dictionary printed in?

1. Why are there differences between Page View and the transcription scans? Aren't they both supposed to be from the 1st edition?

They are both 1st edition copies, despite the differences. The Page View scans are taken from a facsimile copy of Johnson's dictionary; the transcription scans are from microfilm copies. The differences result from the way books were printed in Johnson's time. A printing house would have multiple pressmen working on the same book section at any given time. Each pressman had to typeset the page, and unique human errors thus crept into different copies of the same book. The pressmen identified which sections they printed by placing a small number, or "press figure," at the bottom of their pages. Here is an example from p. 55 of the dictionary:

For this section of the dictionary, then, pressman #1 printed the pages found in the transcription scan copy of the dictionary, while pressman #6 printed the pages found in the Page View version. For more on the variations found, consult William B. Todd's note (#242, "Variants in Johnson's Dictionary, 1755") in Book Collector, Vol. 14 (1965), No. 2, pages 212-214. There he lists at least 13 variant copies of the 1st edition.


2. How much did Johnson's dictionary weigh?

According to Paul Groves, “The first edition was a cumbersome 2,300-page volume weighing about 22lbs, the weight of a large turkey.”

Source: “Johnson’s Dictionary: Dr Johnson’s World in Just 42,773 Words; Dr Samuel Johnson’s Dictionary is 250 Years Old.” Birmingham Post, April 9, 2005, p. 43-44.

Henry Hitchings (quoted by Groves at various times in the above article) states that the first edition was “around twenty pounds.” (Defining the World: The Extraordinary Story of Dr. Johnson’s Dictionary, p. 209 – The book is listed under Recommended Reading).


3. What is the Latin poem on the title page?

It is from Horace's Epistles, where Horace is addressing those who want to write poetry that will be considered great. Here is a translation by Andrew Wood (Edinburgh: William P. Nimmo, 1872):

Cum tabulis animum censoris sumet honesti:
Audebit, quaecumque parum splendoris habebunt.
Et sine pondere erunt, et honore indigna ferentur.
Verba movere loco; quamvis invita recedant,
Et versentur adhuc inter penetralia Vestae:
Obscurata diu populo bonus eruet, atque
Proferet in lucem speciosa vocabula rerum,
Quae priscis memorata Catonibus atque Cethegis,
Nunc situs informis premit et deserta vetustas.      Hor.
  That with his tablets he take up the mind
Of a fair critic, and if words he find
Which sparkle lack and weight, and which may seem
Inane — in short, unworthy of his theme —
These to expunge he will not hesitate,
Though their removal ‘gainst his will may grate,
And though they still may — hid from mortal eye —
In the recesses of his sanctum lie.
A worthy poet for the people’s use
Will ferret out, and to the light produce
Expressive terms long hid from public view,
Used by old Cato and Cethegus too,
Though now they’re cover’d by unsightly mould
And dust of what is obsolete and old;
New words he’ll use if sanction’d they shall be
By custom — parent of all novelty;
Impetuous — flowing like a river pure —
His treasures he’ll pour forth, and thus procure
The boon of a rich tongue for Latium

4. How do you read the Anglo-Saxon font?
Anglo-SaxonModern Anglo-SaxonModern
A aA aB bB b
 cC cD ꝺD d
 E eF ꝼF f
 ᵹgG g hH h
I ıI iJ ȷJ j
K kK kL lL l
 mM mN nN n
O oO oP pP p
Q qQ qR ꞃR r
 ꞅS sT ꞇT t
U uU uV vV v
Ƿ ƿW wX xX x
Y ẏyY yZ zZ z
Æ æÆ æÐ ðth in other or smooth
þth in threeœoe
Paragraph separatorþæt = the, that
et = &

5. Which typeface/font is the dictionary printed in?

The answer to this question (or the closest I can come to one) can be found in the essay "The typographic design of Johnson's Dictionary" by Paul Luna in Anniversary Essays on Johnson's Dictionary, edited by Jack Lynch and Anne McDermott.

"In type design, the faces cut by William Caslon in the 1720s and 1730s provided a systematic (though not wholly uniform) set of related roman, italic, and small-cap founts in a full range of sizes. [...] Johnson's printer, William Strahan, bought his types from the Scottish typefounder Alexander Wilson, who offered faces 'conformable to the London types,' in other words close in design to those of Caslon." (p. 179)


Have a question?

Samuel Johnson's Dictionary of the English Language, the first great English dictionary and one of the most famous books in the English language, appeared in April 1755. To commemorate the 250th anniversary, this volume brings together fourteen original essays by international scholars representing several disciplines: literature, lexicology, linguistics and bibliography. The essays explore familiar and unfamiliar aspects of Johnson's masterpiece, ranging from the history of patronage to the book's typographical design, from the political background to the treatment of compound words. Challenging the myths surrounding the book and offering the most comprehensive and wide-ranging study of the Dictionary ever attempted, these essays present fresh scholarship on the Dictionary and open up novel perspectives and directions for future research.

  • This volume celebrated the 250th anniversary of the first publication of Johnson's Dictionary
  • Brings together specialists from different fields, including literature, lexicology and bibliography
  • This volume presents the latest and most authoritative research by leading scholars on the Dictionary
Read more

Reviews & endorsements

'This book is an essential addition to any serious collection in the field of English studies or bibliography.'Rare Books Newsletter

'The Dictionary owes not all but most of the attention that it receives to the fact that it is Johnson's, one more work to be read for evidence of his peculiarities, hobby horses, and strengths or weaknesses. It is good to find the Dictionary investigated and discussed here for itself, as a book - a hugely influential work of reference that can be seen in other contexts besides the biographical. … The effect of the whole is greater than the sum of its parts, for each paper offers access to a way of thinking and to a range of sources that may be new to the exclusively literary, bibliographical, or lexicographical reader.'The Times Literary Supplement

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Product details

  • Date Published: April 2005
  • format: Hardback
  • isbn: 9780521848442
  • length: 260pages
  • dimensions: 229 x 152 x 19 mm
  • weight: 0.55kg
  • contains: 11 b/w illus.
  • availability: Available

Editors

Jack Lynch, Rutgers University, New Jersey
Jack Lynch is Associate Professor of English at Rutgers University.

Anne McDermott, University of Birmingham
Anne McDermott is Senior Lecturer in English at the University of Birmingham.

Contributors

Jack Lynch, Anne McDermott, Paul J. Korshin, Ian Lancashire, Howard D. Weinbrot, Nicholas Hudson, Robert DeMaria Jr, Geoff Barnbrook, John Stone, Noel E. Osselton, Paul Luna, Catherine Dille, Allen Reddick, R. Carter Hailey

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