Moen-jo-Daro is one of the oldest cities of world. It’s ruins are about 4500 years old. Moen-jo-Daro is situated on the right bank of river and about 27 kilometers far from Larkana. It was discovered in 1922 by an English archaeologist Sir John Marshal.
Once it was a large busy city. The city was well planned and clean. The houses were made of backed bricks. Each house had a bath room and servant quarters close by. There were covered drains beside the streets. Streets were made of backed bricks. There was straight road in the middle of city having shops on both sides. There was a public pond and a big storing hall also.
The people were good cultivators and craftsmen. They grew wheat, rice, cotton etc. They also kept cattle. Craftsmen were very skilled. They worked in gold, silver, ivory and other metals. They made toys for children to play with. They wore long and loose dresses.
There is museum near the ruins of Moen-jo-Daro. Objects found from Moen-jo-Daro have been kept there on exhibition. They include seals, jewellery toys, weapons and painted pottery. Best find of Moen-jo-Daro is the head of bull. The metal statue of dancing girl is also a best find.
The Great Bath of Mohenjo-Daro
The people of Mohenjo-Daro apparently practiced ritual bathing. Evidence of this is one of the more iconic images of Mohenjo-Daro, the Great Bath. The Great Bath is a pool built of mud bricks and is 39 feet long, 23 feet wide, and around 8 feet deep. It was sealed with a sort of tar and had a drain that allowed the bath to be drained and cleaned as necessary.
While we have no written proof that the Indus People practiced bathing rituals, it is not unreasonable to speculate about it based on the prominence of the Great Bath in Mohenjo-Daro. Artifacts such as bathing stones (used to scrub with) and cups (possibly used to hold ritual oils or drinks) were found near the ruins of the Great Bath. Incidentally, ritual bathing is a big part of Hinduism, the most practiced religion of modern India. Perhaps the ritual bathing of the Indus People was kept as part of the Hindu tradition.
A granary is a structure for the storage and preservation of grain, and the people of Mohenjo-Daro had a big one. The people of Mohenjo-Daro may have used their granary as a community bank for their harvested grains, much as we use banks today.
Houses, Sewage, and Plumbing
Houses in Mohenjo-Daro were similar in some ways to those of Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt. They often had two stories, a cistern or well to hold water, and clay pipes to deliver water to different rooms in the house. A central patio or open-air courtyard provided a method of ventilation for the structure. Sewage from the houses of Mohenjo-Daro flowed into a sewer line that followed down the street grid.
The houses of Mohenjo-Daro were built on a street grid somewhat like neighborhoods in modern cities. Many of the streets were covered with mud brick and were wide enough for an ox-cart to drive down the middle. It is possible that the people of Mohenjo-Daro had shops on the lower levels of their houses, or they may have set up shop in front of their homes each day.
The houses and other buildings of Mohenjo-Daro used both mud and fired bricks. Mud bricks, like adobe, were made by mixing mud and straw. The brick maker then left the bricks in the sun to dry. Mud brick buildings could then be covered with another layer of mud, like stucco. These buildings were sturdy and insulated from hot and cold. Fired bricks were made by forming clay into a brick shape and then baking or firing them in a special oven called a kiln. Structures made of fired bricks were very strong, and they resisted water from flood or rain better than mud bricks.
Image of the Great Bath with a Buddhist Stupa in the background(Image license: Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 1.0)
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