Aphanizomenon Flos-Aquae Research Papers

Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) is a fresh water unicellular blue-green alga (cyanophyta) rich in phycocyanin (PC), a photosynthetic pigment with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of a novel natural extract from AFA enriched with PC to protect normal human erythrocytes and plasma samples against oxidative damage in vitro. In red blood cells, oxidative hemolysis and lipid peroxidation induced by the aqueous peroxyl radical generator [2,2′-Azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride, AAPH] were significantly lowered by the AFA extract in a time- and dose-dependent manner; at the same time, the depletion of cytosolic glutathione was delayed. In plasma samples, the natural extract inhibited the extent of lipid oxidation induced by the pro-oxidant agent cupric chloride (CuCl2); a concomitant increase of plasma resistance to oxidation was observed as evaluated by conjugated diene formation.

The involvement of PC in the antioxidant protection of the AFA extract against the oxidative damage was demonstrated by investigating the spectral changes of PC induced by AAPH or CuCl2. The incubation of the extract with the oxidizing agents led to a significant decrease in the absorption of PC at 620 nm accompanied with disappearance of its blue color, thus indicating a rapid oxidation of the protein. In the light of these in vitro results, the potential clinical applications of this natural compound are under investigation.

  • A Clinical study by Synexa at the University of Stellenbosch on “The Effect of Aphanizomenon Flos-Aquae on T-helper cells, lymphocyte activation and Natural Killer Cells” by Prof. Patrick Bouic in 2008 found that Klamath’s Best® AFA demonstrated immune enhancing properties by significantly inducing the production of cytokines by T-helper cells. At high concentrations the product also had a potent activity on CD4+ lymphocytes by inducing the production of both IL-4 10 (humoral immunity) & IFNy (cellular immunity). © Klamaths Best 2009-2016
  • “Mobilization of human CD34+ CD133+ and CD34+ CD133(-) stem cells in vivo by consumption of an extract from Aphanizomenon flos-aquae--related to modulation of CXCR4 expression by an L-selectin ligand?” by Jensen GS, Hart AN, Zaske LA, Drapeau C, Gupta N, Schaeffer DJ, Cruickshank JA. Cardiovasc Revasc Med. 2007 Jul-Sep;8(3):189-202.

  • Researchers have discovered that a bacterial protein known to reduce the ability of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to infect cells also inhibits infection by the Ebola virus. The antiviral protein, known as cyanovirin-N (CV-N), can extend the survival time of Ebola-infected mice, researchers from the National Cancer Institute's Molecular Targets Discovery Program report in a study published in Antiviral Research. Anti-HIV Protein From Blue-green Algae Also Inhibits Ebola Infection - NIH/National Cancer Institute

  • Effects of Klamath Algae extract on psychological disorders and depression in menopausal women: a pilot study. Genazzani AD1, Chierchia E, Lanzoni C, Santagni S, Veltri F, Ricchieri F, Rattighieri E, Nappi RE. Dipartimento di Ginecologia e Ostetricia, Centro di Endocrinologia Ginecologica, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italia. algen@unimo.it

  • Jensen, Gitte S.; Ginsberg, Donald I.; Huerta, Patricia; Citton, Monica; Drapeau, Christian (January 2000)."Consumption of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae Has Rapid Effects on the Circulation and Function of Immune Cells in Humans" (PDF). Journal of the American Nutraceutical Association 2 (3): 50–58. Retrieved January 3, 2012.

  • The first scientific report published on AFA was by Gabriel Cousens, MD in the Journal of Orthomedicine on the treatment of Alzheimer's Disease. Several case studies were presented where AFA appeared to noticeably reverse the progression of this degenerative condition. (Cousens, G. Report of Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease with Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Orthomedicine, (Winter/Spring), Vol. 8, No. 1-2, 1985)
  • An extensive research project led by Dr. Gitte S. Jensen at the Royal Victoria Hospital in Montreal, Canada studied the effect of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) on the immune and endocrine systems, as well as on general blood physiology. In the performance of this project it was discovered that eating AFA had a profound and unique effect on Natural Killer cells. Within two hours after eating 1.5 grams of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, an average of 40% of the blood NK cells (one billion) left the bloodstream and migrated into the tissues. They further discovered that in some cases the NK cells that remained in the bloodstream had two to three times as many adhesion molecules as they did before the Aphanizomenon flos-aquae was eaten. After a few hours, the NK cells had returned to the bloodstream.“Effects of the Blue Green Algae Aphanizomenon flos-aquae on Human Natural Killer Cells.” Chapter 3.1 of the IBC Library Series, Volume 1911, "Phytoceuticals: Examining the health benefit and pharmaceutical properties of natural antioxidants and phytochemicals." 
  • Sevulla and Aguirre ( in their doctoral research) studied 1,567 school children who were given 1 gram (4 capsules) of AFA a day for six months. The key finding: A dramatic 81% improvement in the children's academic scores were reported. Sevulla I., and Aguiree, N. Study On The Effects Of Super Blue Green® Algae, Universidad Centro Americana, Nicaragua, 1995
  • At the Harvard, Massachusetts  Center for Family Wellness,Claudia Jarratt and her staff (1997) conducted a landmark study of 142 children who ate between .5 gm and 1 gm of AFA a day for ten weeks. Key Finding: Parents and teachers reported significant improvements in children's problem behaviors in 10 out of 11 categories using the Achenbach rating scales. (Jarratt, C., et al, The Children and Algae Report, The Center for Family Wellness, Harvard, MA, 1997)
  • AFA represents a novel approach to modulating immune surveillance. Such an approach may have implications in the treatment and prevention of infection, cancer, and immuno-deficiency states.“Blue Green Algae as a Nutritional Supplement: Evidence for effects on the circulation and function of immune cells in humans” Donald I. Ginsberg, B.Sc. McGill University Montreal,  March 2000
  • Effect of a Klamath algae product ("AFA-B12") on blood levels of vitamin B12 and homocysteine in vegan subjects: a pilot study.Kumar, K.; Lakshmanan, A.; Kannaiyan, S. (2003).
  • "Bioregulatory and therapeutic effects of blue green algae". Indian Journal of Microbiology 43
  • Lahitová, N.; Doupovcová, M.; Zvonár, J.; Chandoga, J.; Hocman, G. (1994). "Antimutagenic properties of fresh-water blue-green algae". Folia Microbiologica 39
  • Shytle, DR; Tan, J; Ehrhart, J; Smith, AJ; Sanberg, CD; Sanberg, PR; Anderson, J; Bickford, PC (2010). "Effects of blue-green algae extracts on the proliferation of human adult stem cells in vitro: A preliminary study". Medical science monitor 16
  • Evaluation of Microalgae for use as Nutraceuticals and Nutritional Supplements. Bishop WM, Zubeck HM (2012) J Nutr Food Sci 2:147. doi:10.4172/2155-9600.1000147
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