3.5 Essay About Gravity

Essay on Relative Gravity – Extended Abstract

Copyright Orion Karl Daley
Presented with author’s permission

Note: The following is an extended abstract from the “Essay on Relative Gravity” by Orion Karl Daley

Relative Gravity is defined in the abstract as:

‘The potential energy of bodies purported as amplitude in kinetic energy and expressed as some spacial time in the form of a resonant frequency shared between them.

The resonant frequency is considered a shared fundamental that is measured through their bodies’ level of superposition.

The kinetic expression is subject to the disposition of the bodies’ potential uniquely’.

Merging Galaxies. Hubble Heritage photo of Galaxies NGC 2207 and IC2163


The Theory of Relative Gravity explains in another way how the Universe is put together. It addresses unification by furthering the scope of Relativity in the framework of an object oriented paradigm that, for conservation, supports polymorphism.

The theory’s basis is first in viewing the Universe in the form of alternating currents, where like an alternator, all properties can be considered conserved in expression. In general, this can allow both symmetry and randomness depending upon view.

As an example for unification theory, consider, what is light and how do you resolve its perceived wave particle duality? In his book about QED, Feynman’s photon particle counter is definitive. Einstein’s suggestion that photons become electrons when arriving to Earth is also considered to have something to it. The Theory of Relative Gravity takes license with these by connecting some dots. This is where in these theories, themselves, there seems to be the absence of explanation for how a photon crosses light years in space; as well as the dynamics of our own visual perception of light; and therefore the reception of its particles with respect to the physiology of our eyes which receive wave lengths, and not particles.

Consider, that from a heavenly body, photons are emitted in a somewhat omnidirectional manner. Further, if there is no receiver, such as our physiology, or even another heavenly body, for example, to absorb and /or reflect them in their own unique way, they continue to travel on their way. But yet, cumulatively speaking, Space has not yet turned to pure white light. But then of course, explanation is further needed for how photons even cross space in the first place at 186,000 miles per second and travel some billions of light years, that is besides just in our atmosphere.

If able to speak with Tesla, would he say that a photon actually consists of an alternating current? This could explain how it could cross basically any space at zero volts, where in fact, given a wave length ( Fq=Amp/ [ Distance or Velocity]), depending on how viewed .

Linear Time = ‘Fq * velocity’

When applying the Inverse square law with respect to amplitude and velocity, then Einstein’s view on how time slows is also supported.

 Each side of the wave length could constitute a polarity. Here, the particle effect for Feynman can be realized as each side of the wave in sum could represent a particle.

That is where -1eV electron volts and +1eV positron volts = { 0 eVolts } => a photon; and Einstein’s view on the photon can also be supported; and this could also explain how ever else a photon can be received such as the Sun’s on the Earth, and then the nature of Earth’s own emissions for the context of light.

This would mean that particles could hold some kind of a polarity to them; but which could then augment the question about the nature of ‘what constitutes a neutron’.

 Could this view appear to fly into the face of basic atomic shell theory, where ignoring Bohr and even Pauli? Perhaps it might not. Electron shell placement could be perceived in a similar manner with respect to high energy states.

The essay does not intend to dismiss the standard atomic model ; or question why protons are thought to be packed together conveniently with neutrons where corresponding electrons must compete to be shoe horned into different shells; or where seen as an elegant base for the building blocks of molecules and matter.

Relative Polarity:

Instead, particles and subatomic particles are firstly seen as manifolds of currents that have a relative polarity. Or the question is, what role does the strong and weak force supposed to have?

As an example, relative polarity could mean that, that which is more positive is more positive than something which is considered less positive; yet that which is less positive is more positive to something that is more negative; and which is less negative to something that could be even more negative.

Relative Distance:

An entity can be considered less positive with respect to another where attracted, but yet be more positive than another that it will attract. You could even say that absolute polarity can be relative with respect to distance and size of related objects.

The idea of a relative polarity with respect to distance can allow differentiated particles as well as to be applied to other things.

An every day example is a large magnet having a mutual attraction with a smaller one requiring a closer distance than if between two larger ones at a greater distance.

Consider larger heavenly bodies like the Sun with respect to smaller ones like Earth. With respect to a larger body, a smaller one has a similar relationship at a closer distance, than two large ones, like the Sun and a gas giant where having a greater mutual distance.

An entity can be 100 times smaller than its counter part; and perhaps a magnitude or more less in energy. In this case, distance N is seen as 1/100th the distance required than two equal size entities would have in order to reach the same relative equilibrium of net zero force between them.

Relative Equilibrium:

The disposition of force is considered proportional between paralleled entities. It is seen as a relationship of an inner and outer relativity of relative masses; or their covariance in terms of relative forces. It is to be derived from their shared relationship in Relative Gravity. This is where acceleration is measured at a rate represented as Relative Equilibrium with respect to same time T such as the speed of light.

The Speed of Light:

The actual speed of light can also take on a greater significance for theory than just a nature’s speed limit. This is when considering it as a wave length of perhaps 186,000 miles in distance.

This might seem actually absurd, when knowing already the wave lengths of visible and non visible light. But is it actually so far fetched when considering theories of deep gravitational waves from black holes?
Suggested here is that this rather long wave length acts as a carrier in a similar manner to amplitude modulation with respect to frequency modulation. In other words, where FM acts like a passenger bus representing what we measure as its light spectrum on its own AM band as a highway.

When having the means, like amplitude behind it to cross space, it might be easier to imagine a photon taking about eight minutes to reach Earth from the Sun. But this also implies that in having a wave length of 186,000 miles, that it also represents a cycle, and therefore a frequency which can be construed as an oscillation.

Consider this in terms of Einstein’s equation – that is, if looked at in another way: M=E/C2 . In other words, to represent Einstein’s interchangeability of matter with energy, its energy is viewed here to actually oscillate at the speed of light squared; we can apply the equivalent of E/C = M in the atomic spectrum as ‘Fq=Amp/ Velocity.

Accordingly, at the speed of light squared, C2, now our wave length is 3,459,600,000 miles per oscillation/second. Would you consider that we are actually stretching things here just a little bit? Perhaps not. Consider OJ287, the black hole, is thought to contain the density of over 18 billion solar masses like the Sun. This being the case, then certainly, why can’t their be wave lengths that are over 3.5 billion miles long in our universe? But now I ask you to take one more leap into the realm of possibilities.

Like a particle of energy, in some cases perhaps could such a wave length be squeezed to the width of micron instead. Consider a neutron star. This is further feasible if dark matter is considered to be like an electrolytic stew that offers an impedance in limiting the oscillation’s actual distance to the diameter of a particle where mass = force/acceleration.

In Perspective:

The theory has many views that could be considered controversial. At the onset it should be considered simply unconventional.

Currents of the Universe:

In the theory, the fundamental universe is viewed like an alternator consisting of a plasma of alternating currents similar to an electrolytic stew. Basic symmetry is considered conserved through polymorphism of inherent properties.

Given a wave length of some deep time, symmetry in properties is not at the exclusion of randomness.

In general, this can allow both symmetry and randomness depending upon view. It also allows particles of opposite charge. And in the quest of absolute zero, it is seen to allow strings to have harmonics. The basis for unification theory should prompt the question as to ‘why shouldn’t their be symmetry amongst these views!

Common and Inherent Properties of Force

The relationship of dark and light matter is seen as that of impedance where particles to galaxies, or any other body between, are first viewed as manifolds having common and inherent properties of force. Particles can have opposite charge, and harmonics of vectors for strings. A wavelength is considered to be subject to distortion in time yet retain properties. Transformation is seen as part of the continuum. Bodies are considered skew-able and cumulative with respect to others within their context as separate reference frames. Gravity is viewed as their fundamental relationship through superposition.

The Four Forces

At the onset the theory views the four forces although being unique as also being relative to each other. They are thought to have symmetry through a shared property of a relative force. In the essay this is referred to as Relative Gravity. Its purpose is to measure the force of bodies in space with respect to their context.

Seen as derivatives, the four known forces: Electro Strong and Weak, Electromagnetism and Gravity are considered to share symmetry where differentiated by their context in space and matter.

 Properties are considered shared in an orderly manner when thought analogous to white light: As mass, light exhibits a force in space. Relative force as a spectrum represents the four known as differentiated forces that are part of the spectra of relative force. Like the colors of light we could view them to coexist and, for that matter, to blend.

Consider that a drop of water in space contains all four forces. Its a matter of how they are actually blended for what is considered to exist within some spacial time.

Spacial Time:

Consider having a continuum for the universe represented as a current’s sinusoidal wave form:

As some wave length of deep time infinity should be allowed as being something beyond our ability to measure. In a cycle, on one side of the wave could perhaps be the Universe’s expansion while the other being its contraction.

Time as a derivative can also be construed as some spacial time. That is, as many phases of alternating current acting as separate or asynchronous reference frames of time and dimension combined can yield others. Due to a measure of time between them, each reference frame is with respect to the others past as representing its present.

 Their relation, seen as spacial time can describe the time and dimension of each frame and also when combined as a synchronistic event between the two. That is, for a period of time, multiple asynchronous frames share common or synchronous references to each other.

The Dark Fabric:

The concept of alternating current witin spacial times can make Steven Hawking’s 100 million black holes per cubic light year be within reason.

Making up a dark fabric, each black hole could be its own alternator and weaved together at the speed of light by alternating currents that are relative in spacial time.

The URF Model

Uniform Relative Force for the purpose of theory, is specifically intended to describe in some form of a manifold, the nature of how, like a water droplet demonstrates its body in the vacuum of space; or particles, matter and even galaxies are held together. It is referred to in the essay as a uniform relative force: or URf.

Th URf model is considered a basis for the unification theory for the four forces in Relative Gravity. Relative force is seen as what is common between them when given their context in space.

For a body in space. given an impedance, voltage could be viewed as a resultant body in question. Basically, a higher voltage is the same thing as a lower one which has a more dispersed current. They are actually one and the same thing, except for their context.

 Body’s in Space, or Spacial Bodies:

Gravity being commonly seen as the weakest of the four forces is considered here based on perspective. As time can change in reference, for spacial bodies, current can be measured as density.

 Gravity’s radiation demonstrates a current that is considered more spread out than the strong and the weak. The latter could be considered the modulated equivalent of a compressed spacial body at a higher voltage based on impedance, that besides to suit the density of sub-atomic particle assembly, which is Earth, is considered their basis in the first place.

Orbital Bodies:

Gravity between bodies is viewed as the fundamental relationship of what is considered to exist between them: a ‘ synchronistic event of superposition in a unique spacial time’.

For orbital bodies, consider their meshed Relative Force being similar to electrolytic like fabric of gears that is based on their related velocity ratio’s. The orbital bodies are considered to work in a manner of superposition of alternating states.

Relative dispositions of ± amplitude are seen to be exchanged in alternating current. The event is thought of as an expressed volition between peers that exists in some spacial time.

In a manner similar to meshed gear teeth of ± amplitudes, relative masses are envisioned to undertake a syncopated superposition.

Deriving Relative Equilibrium between the Sun and the Earth

Provided below is part of the calculation of Relative Gravity between the Sun and Earth. This is where there is a state of mutual equilibrium seen between them as field bodies in gravity near where the magnetic storm between the Sun and Earth is.

The Relative Time ( RT ) between them is viewed in terms of the speed of light (C), where if as some form of matter, their existence is at the speed of light squared (C2).
Between the Sun and Earth, there is an estimated surface to surface distance of 150,000,000 km’s.

Note that Earth’s 425 Km’s puts D2 in the Exosphere.The interactions with the solar winds is considered in the adjacent Magnetosphere.

Total distance in kilometers (km) is considered their average distance. This does not account for elliptical change but assumes the radius of the Earth at 6,372 km, and the sun’s radius at 65,1053 km.

Their boundary point from the standpoint of Earth is calculated to be 454+km’s above its surface. In being in the Exosphere or perhaps the Magnetosphere, this is believed to demonstrate Earth’s gravity field with respect to the Sun as basically equivalent of the area of the Magnetosphere.

This boundary point in what is called Relative Equilibrium could represent an absolute average in the fundamental relationship of a spacial time between the Earth and Sun. This is with respect to a point net zero in their relationship as relative forces for an optimal relative distance between them.

Hypothetical Model for Superposition between the Sun and Earth

Earth Cycle: As much as how an alternator works, during its rotation, Earth could demonstrate a cycle at the boundary point. That is, 24 hours would equal a single Earth Cycle as a frequency that is actually perpendicular to its electromagnetic field.
What this assumes is that, besides wave lengths which occur in some frequency per second, also there are wavelengths that can take up to seconds, minutes, hours or some other measure for deep time.

Distance covered by Earth for a single cycle is at a rate of 1,000 miles / hour; or 16 miles per minute, or .29 miles /second.
Calculated, the Earth Cycle frequency is 1.16 * -105 per 24000 mile wave length or 86,400 seconds long. It is not Hertz in range.

Note: A hypothetical model for Current: 1 Earth cycle = 24 hours * 60 minutes * 60 sec = 86,400 seconds.

From an included calculation, relative force of 1.00350507 * 1046 / is divided by 86,400 seconds in order to spread this across one Earth cycle in terms of seconds: Rf  of 1.16 * 10 41 / second.

Vel * fq = Amplitude

Amplitude Rf = 1.16 * 1041 / second * fq 1.16 * –105 = 1.346 * 1036 kg/km/sec
fq 1.16 * –105 = 1.346 * 1036 kg/km / ( 1.16 * 1041 kg/km / second ).

For now what is hypothetical about this current is: that at the rotational speed of 0.29 miles/sec, a current of 1.346 * 1036 kg/km is exchanged between the Sun and Earth
that is regulated to a rate of 1.16 * 105 kg/km / second.

Deep Time Model:

Solar System Planetary rotation is represented as a periodic time T. This is construed as a frequency. Its Wave Length is considered to exist as the attenuated relationship in superposition between the planet in question and the Sun. This is in Table I as Periodic T. In Table II is Distance 1. This is considered the distance from the planets surface where superposition is to normally occur.

Table I as Periodic Time T calculation

Table II Calculation of Planet / Sun boundary point in Relative Equilibrium.

Notes: Frequency is not considered in Hz as it is in a negative range or < 0. Periodic time is calculated as rate of rotation: [ Hours * 3600 seconds]. In this manner Time T is considered Implicit with the actual wave length. This is represented by the circumference of the planet. Example: Earth is 24*3600 seconds in duration.

This is not in scope for the Hertz range of 0Hz to +Ehz. It is considered instead to range from 0 to extremely low. Consequently, there can be wavelengths in space which are less than the Hertz range which can be construed as Wave lengths of deep time. Deep Time can be viewed as a carrier for higher frequencies; and a bias for a hetero-dyne effects for deriving other frequencies. This could be to derive higher frequencies and different related bands. As a velocity, this is further demonstrated as miles per second for the wave length in question.

In Retrospect:

The Essay on Relative Gravity is intended as unified field theory. In other words, like Black Holes, Big Bangs, and ‘that nothing can exceed the speed of light’, it is theory.

As theory, it could be called ‘Scientific Fiction’. Except fiction is normally proven to be fiction. This unified field theory is not proven as anything yet. But most strides accomplished in pioneering science are based on first theory; where being proven or dis-proven is a matter of opinion and available means for measure.

An example is in the theory of the universe expanding which disproved the previously proven theory of it contracting. Black holes are readily accepted as fact, except still to be proven. Yet, it is considered scientific to speculate on their nature which is actually based on theory. Singularities which are thought to turn into big bangs are also theory. Yet regarded as fact, explanations omit as to even why a singularity would become a big bang in the first place; and in what space it occupies.

 The Essay as a Book

The Essay as a document is divided into several parts. They are to first introduce the concept of Relative Gravity through offering a perspective of the Universe; A discussion of gravity itself and what is needed to actually explain its why and how in addition to its what.

Then a proforma definition of Relative Gravity is introduced followed by an explanation if its application with respect to orbiting bodies. This leads into the actual paradigm where the properties of Relative Gravity and its dynamics are described in detail.

The Mechanics of Relative Gravity are then formalized where its formula is introduced. The four laws of RG follow. In total, they consist of numerous observations.
As mentioned, examples follow for calculating Relative Gravity for the relationship of the Sun and Earth and Moon.

There are appendices for referenced material that complete the document. http://www.lulu.com/product/paperback/essay-on-relative-gravity/16815895

About the author

Orion Karl Daley professionally is a financial trading systems engineer. His study is ongoing in finance, political and computer science, history, and in theoretical physics. He started his career as a self taught EE with Raytheon Data Systems after his third year at WVU. Starting with the computer manufacturing and design, and then telecommunications industry, he specializes in designing and building institutional and retail electronic trading systems.

Orion Daley’s revolutionary new theory of Relative Gravity explains in another way how the universe is put together. The fundamental universe is viewed like a plasma of alternating currents. Symmetry is conserved through polymorphism of inherent properties. Given a wave length of some deep time, symmetry in properties is not at the exclusion of randomness. As derivatives, the four known forces: the Electro Strong and Weak, Electromagnetism and Gravity are considered to share symmetry where differentiated by their context. The relationship of dark and light matter is seen as that of impedance where particles to galaxies, or any other body between, are first viewed as manifolds having common and inherent properties. Particles can have opposite charge, and harmonics of vectors for strings with wavelengths subject to distortion. Bodies are considered skew-able and cumulative with respect to others within their context. Gravity is viewed as their fundamental relationship through superposition.


 Copyright Orion Karl Daley
Presented with author’s permission

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Filed Under: Philosophy, Science, UniverseTagged With: dark matter, electo snrong and weak forces, electromagnetism, gravity, harmonics, Orion Karl Daley, polymorphism, relative gravity, strings, symmetry, unified field theory


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The Effects of Gravity

     There are some people who worry that when they're outside, if they don't keep a

good grip on the ground, they'll just go flinging off into space. They needn't really worry

about this, because gravity generally keeps that sort of thing from happening. The thing is,

no one is really sure what causes gravity, but the effects have been studied by many

physicists and astronomers. Three of the more obvious effects of gravity are things falling

down, weight, and the the moon and planets staying in their orbits.

     Things fall down. People have generally grown to accept that if one lets go of

one's prized and valuable textbook when walking through a mud puddle, the book will

invariably end up in the puddle and therefore be stripped of all value and even legibility.

Things fall down because there is a strong gravitational attraction between things of great

mass, like the Earth, and things of little mass, like a book. The only problem with this

relatively simple explanation is that no one really knows why it's like that. What people

have figured out so far is that gravity is a force, and a force is anything that changes the

state of rest or motion of an object. In the absence of outside forces, the momentum of a

system remains constant. This means that if there was no gravity, when one would

relinquish one's hold on the textbook, it would remain at rest in the air. If a force acts on a

body, the body accelerates in the direction of the force. In the example of the force of

gravity, small things like textbooks are pulled downward toward the center of the large

mass of the Earth, not up into space, even if some people think that this might happen.
                                                   Torgerson 2

     Isaac Newton was the first to conceive of weight as the gravitational attraction

between a body and the Earth. The force that results from the gravitational attraction of

the Earth on bodies at its surface is what we call weight. Science has chosen to measure

the mass of objects in units that are roughly equivalent to the weight of those objects on

Earth. For example, if a textbook weighs four pounds on Earth, it would have a mass of

four pounds in an orbiting spaceship. The textbook would be "weightless" because it does

not feel the gravitational attraction of the Earth, but, even in outer space, to push the

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Related Searches

Gravity         Small Things         Sure         Momentum         Astronomers         Textbooks         Grip         Falling         Planets         Direction        

textbook from one place to another, someone would have to exert a force sufficient to

overcome the inertial mass of four pounds. If that same textbook which weighs four

pounds on Earth, was placed on the surface of the much more massive planet Jupiter, the

book would weigh 15.76 pounds, because of Jupiter's stronger gravitational attraction.

     Newton was also the first to assume correctly that the same force of gravity

that causes objects to fall and to have weight, also explains the movement of astronomical

bodies. Newton stated that every particle is attracted to every other particle with a force

directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the

square of the distance between them. It was natural for him to turn his attention to

celestial bodies, since, on Earth, the distance between a body and Earth could not be

varied greatly, and the force of attraction between two different bodies on Earth was too

feeble to be detected by methods available at that time. The astronomer Johannes Kepler

knew that planets moved in ellipses, but he didn't know why. He sensed that planetary

bodies and the sun probably had a natural affinity for each other, and that possibly

magnetism was involved. By studying Kepler's observations, Newton derived laws that

described how the force of gravity acted. He was the first to declare that the pull of the
                                                   Torgerson 3

Earth extended to infinity. He showed that a projectile launched at sufficiently great speed,

in a direction parallel to the Earth's surface, would not fall down to Earth, but would fall

around and around the Earth. So, too, the moon continuously falls around the Earth, and

the planets fall around the Sun. Each of these objects balances the Sun's force of gravity

with its own momentum, that is, with its innate tendency to keep moving in the same

direction at the same speed. Take away the Sun's force of gravity, and the planets would

sail into space, in whatever dircetion at whatever speed they happen to have. Take away a

planet's momentum, perhaps with a giant hand that stops it in orbit, and it would head

straight for the Sun, drawn by the Sun's gravitational force. But, because both gravity and

momentum are at work, the planets "fall", not down, but around, forever as they move in

elliptical, but nearly circular, orbits.

     Working with insight that has never been exceeded since, Isaac Newton showed

that by making one simple assumption, that all objects in the universe attract one another

in accordance with a simple relationship, he could explain the fall of objects to the ground,

the moon's orbit around the Earth, and the planets' motions around the Sun. The

relationship Newton conceived was this: Every object attracts every other object with an

amount of force that varies in proportion to the product of the two objects' masses, and in

inverse proportion to the square of the distance between the centers of the objects. It is

plain to see that gravity is quite important. The effects of gravity have been studied by

many brilliant physicists and astronomers, but still the cause of gravity remains unknown.

The law of gravitation plays a very prominent role in our view of the universe; it is the

force of gravity which causes a book to fall in a mud puddle, which holds our planet in its

orbit around the Sun, which provides a reason for the existence of weight, yet the law of
                                                   Torgerson 4

gravity was unknown to humankind until rather recently in history. Isaac Newton is the

genius who hypothesized that the heavens and the Earth are united by this single, all

encompassing principle.

Works Cited

Goldsmith, Donald. The Astronomers. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1991

Newman, James R. The Harper Encyclopedia Of Science. 2nd ed. New York: Harper and      Row, 1967.

Macmillan. The New York Public Library Science Desk Reference. New York: The      Stonesong Press Inc. and The New York Public Library, 1995.


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